Part I | Reconstructing the ancient history of Kashmir


Decipher Greek and Scythian currencies

Experts did a great job deciphering the earliest Greek and Scythian coins. These coins are inscribed in classical Greek and Kharoshti scriptures, which bore the names of its issuers, besides kings, religious symbols were also displayed on these coins. These things helped numismatists interpret the coins. It is not an easy task to decipher these coins and read their legends, but the European experts with their extraordinary talent and knowledge did the job. They deciphered and arranged the pieces in chronological order. The European experts responsible for this type of research are James Princap, Alexander Cunnigham, ME Theamas, Lasen Wilson and Brown. It was archaeologists and numismatists who established a tradition of deciphering coins.

It is on the basis of their research that several monograms on such coins were written by later scholars, the most interesting and perhaps the oldest monograph on the coins is that of Von Sallet whose learned knowledge and solid numismatic judgments made it possible to correct many points on the theories of its predecessors. The research of Dr. James Forgussonson and Professor Cowell has also been of great value to this end. Nowadays we have many catalogs of Greek and Scythian coins, most of the numismatic collections which, from India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, reached Europe are well identified and documented there.

The British Museum has its own well-published catalogs of Roman, Greek and Scythian coins found in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Many museums in South Asia have a good collection of artifacts and coins belonging to Greek, Scythian and Parthian tribes. Kabul Museum, Afghanistan, Peshawar Museum Pakistan, Punjab Museum Lahore Pakistan, Indian Museum, Kolkata and Kashmir Museum, Srinagar have a good collection of these pieces. In a few of these museums these pieces are also well edited but in several places in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan these pieces have yet to be studied.

On the other hand, contemporary archaeologists and numismatists continue the mission of their predecessors. The result is that more and more monograms are arriving in book stores with more scientific approaches and observations. Difficult questions relating to ancient studies were also well addressed. The book “Greeks in Bacteria and India” by N. K Narranian opened up new phases of research in the Indian regions of the Greek occupation. Reputable numismatists, such as Dr David Macdowel, Dr PL Gupta, Michel Mitchnar and Osmund Bopearachchi, in addition to deciphering these coins, performed a systematic study of these coins and documented their locations of discovery. Michel Mitchner in his monumental book on world numismatics, entitled Classical World, attributed a chapter to Jammu and Kashmir where he documented the number of Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian coins, which he believed to have been issued. in parts of Jammu and Kashmir. It was thanks to this research based on scientific approaches that the Greek and Scythian occupation of parts of the subcontinent during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. parts of the subcontinent.

Hippostratus Silver Coin

Face; – bust on the right

Reverse; – rider


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